The “best case scenario” in the prisoner’s dilemma – the most favorable outcome for all parties involved – is produced through cooperation and trust.


a.   True

b.   False







Which of the following refers to a form of human motivation whereby our decisions and actions are motivated primarily (if not exclusively) by our own interests?


a.   Egoism

b.   Psychological determinism

c.   Altruism

d.   Ethnocentrism







Psychological egoism is a prescriptive argument, whereas ethical egoism is descriptive.


a.   True

b.   False







Which of the following hypothetical attitudes most closely resembles the notion that life is a “zero-sum game”?


a.   “Everyone is created equal”

b.   “You can only win if someone else loses”

c.   “We all die in the end, so why be good?”

d.   “Live and let live”







Altruistic acts are those:


a.   intended to serve our own interests.

b.   undertaken solely for the benefit of others.

c.   that punish cheaters.

d.   that strengthen social norms.







To willingly accept some cost to ourselves in order to ensure that those who violate laws and social norms suffer consequences for their behavior is referred to as:


a.   altruistic punishment.

b.   common punishment.

c.   indirect reciprocity.

d.   inclusive fitness.







Ethical egoism argues that our motivation for moral behavior should be our own rationally derived interests.


a.   True

b.   False







If the similarity-leniency hypothesis were true, which of the following would also (likely) be true?


a.   White jurors would be more likely to favor minority defendants

b.   White jurors would be harsher when a case involves a white victim and non-white perpetrator

c.   Minority jurors would be harsher on minority defendants

d.   All of the choices apply







Based on Axelrod’s ” !@#$%^&* for tat” simulation, the decision-making approach which best serves our own long-term interests is to exploit the kindness of others.


a.   True

b.   False







Which of the following, based in research indicating gender differences in responses to moral dilemmas, suggests that we reserve a greater role for compassion, interpersonal relationships, and concern for and responsiveness to the welfare of others in our moral reasoning?


a.   Hedonism

b.   The difference principle

c.   Care ethics

d.   Moral psychology







A non-zero-sum game might be described as one with the possibility of a “win-win” outcome, rather than a “win-lose” outcome.


a.   True

b.   False