Denial and Deception – MIDTERM (due 2 November)

Assignment Instructions

This assignment is a take-home essay assignment of two questions to test your knowledge of the course objectives.  Of the four essays below please choose two to answer.  In completing these essays you must make reference to the course readings to back up and support your answers.  These essays will test your knowledge of the following objectives.


Course Objective-1:  Comprehend basic theories of the use of Denial and Deception in shaping perception.

Joseph W. Caddell’s article, “Deception 101 – Primer on Deception” describes several theories associated with shaping perception via deception.  Select an example from Caddell’s case studies of a “passive” deception and how it was designed to shape adversary perceptions.


Course Objective-2 Describe the principles that determine the success of Denial and Deception efforts.

Describe and discuss the relationship between: Focus, Objective, Centralized Planning and Control, Security, Timeliness, and Integration in Denial and Deception Efforts.





Course Objective-3Assess the application of these principles in historical examples.

Using material in the reading, “Hoodwinked During America’s Civil War” identify and assess which of the principles of Focus, Objective, Centralized Planning and Control, Security, Timeliness, and Integration were used by Union Maj. Gen. William S. Rosencrans to get his army across the Tennessee River without being detected by the forces of Confederate General Braxton Bragg.


Course Objective-4Examine the contemporary role of Denial and Deception in national security affairs.

Explain why Denial and Deception operations still succeed when employed against modern, professional leaders, in spite of the considerable body of information available concerning such activities.  Support your response with examples and references to the literature.



“Soviet Deception in the Cuban Missile Crisis.” Learning From the Past. 49-58

“Battlefield Deception”. Field Manual No. 90-2, scan



Each essay should be 3-4 pages in length (not including title page and reference list).  The body of your paper should follow standard Turabian style formatting.  You must support each answer with references to the literature.  You should format your references using the Turabian author-date methods and include a “References” list at the end of your paper.