Question 1.1. The nurse practitioner for a cardiology practice is responsible for providing presurgical teaching for patients who are about to undergo a coronary artery bypass graft. Which of the following teaching points best conveys an aspect of the human circulatory system? (Points : 3)

“Your blood pressure varies widely between arteries and veins, and between pulmonary and systemic circulation.

“Only around one quarter of your blood is in your heart at any given time.

“Blood pressure and blood volume roughly mimic one another at any given location in the circulatory system.

“Left-sided and right-sided pumping action at each beat of the heart must equal each other to ensure adequate blood distribution.

Question 2.2. A physical assessment of a 28-year-old female patient indicates that her blood pressure in her legs is lower than that in her arms and that her brachial pulse is weaker in her left arm than in her right. In addition, her femoral pulses are weak bilaterally. Which of the following possibilities would her care provider be most likely to suspect? (Points : 3)


Essential hypertension

Coarctation of the aorta

An adrenocortical disorder

Question 3.3. As part of the diagnostic workup for a male patient with a complex history of cardiovascular disease, the care team has identified the need for a record of the electrical activity of his heart, insight into the metabolism of his myocardium, and physical  measurements, and imaging of his heart. Which of the following series of tests is most likely to provide the needed data for his diagnosis and care? (Points : 3)

Echocardiogram, PET scan, ECG

Ambulatory ECG, cardiac MRI, echocardiogram

Serum creatinine levels, chest auscultation, myocardial perfusion scintigraphy

Cardiac catheterization, cardiac CT, exercise stress testing

Question 4.4. An older adult female patient has presented with a new onset of shortness of breath, and the patient’s nurse practitioner has ordered measurement of her BNP levels along with other diagnostic tests. What is the most accurate rationale for the nurse practitioner’s choice of blood work? (Points : 3)

BNP is released as a compensatory mechanism during heart failure and measuring it can help differentiate the patient’s dyspnea from a respiratory pathology.

BNP is an indirect indicator of the effectiveness of the RAA system in compensating for heart failure.

BNP levels correlate with the patient’s risk of developing cognitive deficits secondary to heart failure and consequent brain hypoxia.

BNP becomes elevated in cases of cardiac asthma, Cheyne-Stokes respirations, and acute pulmonary edema, and measurement can gauge the severity of pulmonary effects.

Question 5.5. A patient in the intensive care unit has a blood pressure of 87/39 and has warm, flushed skin accompanying his sudden decline in level of consciousness. The patient also has arterial and venous dilation and a decrease in systemic vascular resistance. What is this patient’s most likely diagnosis? (Points : 3)

Hypovolemic shock

Septic shock

Neurogenic shock

Obstructive shock